Khenchen Thrangu Rinpoche


Dharma & Dharmata – Part 3/4


Instructions on “Distinguishing Phenomena & Pure Being“

by Buddha Maitreya / composed by Asanga


presented at Thrangu Tashi Chöling in Boudhnath, Nepal, in 1992


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3.2.2. Transformation in Ten Points (point 6)


To realise dharma and Dharmata, we will now look at the sixth of the ten points of transformation.


(6) THE BASIS FOR THOROUGH TRANSFORMATION. This point is presented in six topics. The Regent Maitreya first presented a brief indication and then an extensive explanation. In the brief indication, he just gave the names of the topics. In the extensive explanation, he explained each topic in detail. The short verse is:


“The introduction involving the ground or support is into original wisdom, the concept-free. As this is approached in a manner involving six points, since the focal requirements, attributes surrendered, and application authentic in its mode, defining characteristics, and benefits, and full understanding are hereby introduced.”


The first of the six topics of the extensive explanation to enter into thorough non-conceptuality is (1) that which is to be observed. The verse in the Root Text is:


“The first of these, the focal requirement, should be known to be introduced by the following four: the Mahayana teachings, commitment to these, certitude, gatherings fully complete are the grounds.”


That which is to be observed or the focal requirement is thorough non-conceptuality. It has four aspects that describe the way in which to enter into thorough non-conceptuality and the way in which this observation is carried out.


Firstly, (i) it is necessary to listen to and contemplate the Mahayana teachings, i.e., to listen to and receive the words of the Buddha as well as those of the Shastras (‘commentaries explaining the Buddha’s words’) that great scholars composed. Then it is necessary to understand the meaning without error. These two steps are the cause for realising Mahayana. As said earlier, we regard the Shastras as having greater importance than even the words of the Buddha himself and the oral instructions as having greater importance than the treatises. Some people think that the spoken words of the Buddha that are recorded in the Sutras are more important than the Shastras, but it is necessary to understand why the Shastras and oral instructions are more important and not to turn things around.


The second aspect of that which is to be observed is (ii) being committed to the Mahayana teachings by having longing admiration for that which we have recognized as being very profound and have understood as being the cause of great benefit for us and everyone.


By (iii) gaining certainty of the definitive meaning, the third aspect, we no longer have longing admiration because we realize that we need to understand fully what the Buddha taught by examining the teachings, just as we would examine whether a chunk of gold that we found is authentic and pure or not. That in itself is not sufficient, though. To be certain if we can make use of the gold, we have to check more precisely. When we are certain that the gold we tested can be used, we use it. Similarly, if somebody tells us, “This is the word of the Buddha,” then that is not enough. There are indicative words of the Buddha, but we need to rely on the definitive meaning. So, we have to be able to differentiate between the indicative teachings and the definitive meaning. Furthermore, we need to understand the definitive meaning thoroughly, without having any doubts whatsoever.


The fourth aspect of the first topic is translated in the Root Text as (iv) “gathering fully complete.” Having received the teachings, having had longing admiration for them, and having gained certainty of the definitive meaning, then it is necessary to practice meditation in order to have thorough non-conceptual wisdom.


The second of the six topics of the extensive explanation to enter into thorough non-conceptuality is (2) surrendering. The verse in the Root Text is:


“The second, which treats of surrendering attributes, is also introduced by way of four themes, as what is unfavourable and the remedies, the suchness as well as the realisation of this are attributes all, on the grounds of their being surrendered; doing this in respective order as follows: the coarse and the middling, followed by those that are fine and those that persist for a very long time indeed, the attributes are surrendered entirely.”


“Surrendering” means to abandon signs. We need to abandon anything that stands in opposition to non-conceptual wisdom. Four different classes of things need to be abandoned. The first is abandoning (i) what is unfavourable. Adhering to unfavourable phenomena contradicts non-conceptual wisdom. It is first necessary to recognize objects that need to be abandoned. Chief among them are the conflicting emotions, e.g., desire, hatred, ignorance as to the way in which things abide, and so forth. It is adherence or attachment to such conflicting concepts that is the first of the four classes of things that we need to abandon.


The second class of things that we need to abandon is (ii) the remedies. This means we need to abandon adherence to concepts regarding antidotes that we recognized and identified as standing in opposition to non-conceptual wisdom. In order to place our mind in an unfabricated, uncontrived, unmodified way within the nature of phenomena, Dharmata, we need to give up our attachment to concepts and even to their antidotes.


The third class of things that we need to abandon is (iii) suchness. It is not sufficient to just surrender our adherence to concepts about abandonment and to their antidotes, but we even need to surrender our attachment to suchness. It is then necessary to surrender our consciousness that realises suchness and our apprehension of signs of that realisation, which is the fourth class of things that we need to abandon, namely, (iv), realisation of suchness. This means to say that having realised suchness, just as it is, by having progressed along the paths and achieved qualities of fruition, we will still have the concept of the authentic view itself. This is the fourth type of attachment that we need to surrender. When we have accomplished this, then thorough non-conceptual wisdom will manifest.


There is the procedure of abandoning or surrendering our adherence to the four classes of things that need to be abandoned so that thorough non-conceptual wisdom can manifest. The procedure is a matter of first abandoning those things that are coarse, then abandoning those that are subtle, then abandoning those that are extremely subtle, and finally abandoning those that are extremely hard to give up. The first, the easiest, is (i) the coarse, which is called “the unfavourable.” In the practice, we recognize our afflictions, understand that they cause suffering and discontentment and that they are discordant with the realisation of non-conceptual wisdom, and we know that we need to abandon them. The second procedure is (ii) the subtle, which means recognizing that the remedies to abandon desire, hatred, and so forth are good qualities. But it is important to abandon concepts about and attachment to them. The third procedure that is very hard to practice is (iii) the extremely subtle. It is abandoning attachment to suchness. The fourth procedure is the most difficult to realise and is extremely hard to give up. It is overcoming (iv) that which persists a very long time indeed. This means abandoning attachment to our realisation of suchness, i.e., the authentic view of the way things abide.


The third from among the six topics of the extensive explanation to enter into thorough non-conceptuality is (3) authentic application. The verse in the Root Text is:


“As regards application authentic in its mode, there are four degrees of engagement in this as well: Application involving something to focus on, application involving nothing to focus on, application devoid of focuser serving as focus, and application whose focus is nothing to focus on.”


We are not able to straight-away enter non-conceptual wisdom but have to go about it in stages. The first from among the four stages is (i) observing phenomena as mind only. Is that sufficient to enter non-conceptual wisdom? No. We need to move to the second stage of authentic application, which is (ii) not focusing on anything. There is not just the stage of not focusing on anything but also the third stage of practice, which is (iii) the application of no observer. The fourth stage is (iv) the application whose focus is nothing to focus on. This means that there is observation of that which is unobservable.


We might think that the gradual process of observing objects being eliminated, then observing our consciousnesses negated, then passing beyond both, and finally observing that which is unobservable means becoming like a stone or is like being in a dark trance. But this is not what happens. That which is unobservable is Dharmata. It needs to be known and illuminated.


The fourth from among the six topics of the extensive explanation is (4) definitive traits. The Root Text states:


“Here the definitive traits are introduced through three parameters vital to comprehension. Because with respect to reposing in pure being, there is nothing of two and nothing expressible, and this is sublime repose in pure being.


“And because with respect to that devoid of appearance, what does not exist - as duality, formation as such, as faculties, objects, principles of awareness, and as vessel-like worlds’ appearances - are consequently cases of no observation, no description, no ground, no appearance, no principles of awareness, no ground that provides the criteria for the definitive traits of the non-conceptual original wisdom described as in the Sutras.


“And because with respect to appearances, phenomena all as appearances equal the center of open space, since formations all are appearances like illusions.”


This topic has three divisions. The explanation in brief: The first division is (i) reposing in pure being, which means abiding in the uncontrived state of non-conceptual wisdom. The second division is at the time of the realisation of non-conceptual wisdom, (ii) non-appearance of duality. This means that while resting our mind evenly in meditative equipoise, there isn’t even the dualistic thought that there are no appearances whatsoever. As a result of having practiced the path of seeing (the third from among the five paths), within the fourth path of meditation there are no appearances of visible forms, sounds, smells, tastes, tangible objects, rather, only emptiness appears. I was asked by a disciple, “What happens at such a point?” I told him that this is the way things are realised in the beginning. The third division of definitive traits is (iii) appearances like illusions. This means after having moved on the Bodhisattva Bhumis and at Buddhahood, too, phenomena don’t appear as they do to ordinary beings but dawn in the manner of illusions. At Buddhahood, appearances are seen as emptiness-appearances inseparable.


In the detailed discussion of the three divisions of the definitive traits, the first division is (i) reposing in pure being. This means resting or abiding in Dharmata. We spoke about the different modes of presentations in the Sutrayana and Mantrayana traditions. In Sutrayana, devotees first determine just how it is that all phenomena abide and in that way they understand Dharmata. Based upon the accurate knowledge won in Sutrayana, followers of Mantrayana practice resting in meditative equipoise and abide in the non-establishment of external apprehended phenomena and internal apprehending consciousnesses. This is the way in which the definitive trait of reposing in pure being is indicated.


The second division, which is (ii) non-appearance of duality, is about the absence of appearances at the time that non-conceptuality is realised. It is taught in terms of the six classes of objects (sights, sounds, scents, tastes, touches, and thoughts). The first class from among the six are (a) the five doors. “Duality” means that in dependence upon the sense faculties of our five sensory organs (eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and body), there come to be dualistic appearances of that which is apprehended and of that which apprehends, i.e., of that which is perceived and of that which perceives. First there is no dualistic appearance by way of the sense consciousnesses of the respective sense faculties that operate through the sensory organs. Dualistic appearances occur through the second division, (b) the sixth conceptual consciousness, which also does not appear while resting in meditative equipoise. Third is (c) the sense faculties that are the bases that make it possible for the consciousnesses and objects to meet. Fourth, there is appearance of (d) the five objects (forms, sounds, smells, tastes, tangible objects). The fifth division is the appearance of (e) the six consciousnesses. The sixth division is (f) the appearance of the world and beings in the world. In summary: What is apprehended while reposing in pure being is the lack of an own nature of all six classes just described. We simply settle into the absence or the non-appearance of these six classes, within the nature of emptiness, and rest in what is like looking at the center of space.


The third division of the definitive traits is seeing appearances to be (iii) like illusions. Even though phenomena are not ultimately established or ultimately existent, nevertheless, when Bodhisattvas have mastered the third path of seeing, are practicing the fourth path of meditation, and rise from meditative equipoise or what in Sutras is called “yoga that is without appearance,” they see appearances dawn in an unceasing manner. When they have arrived at what is referred to as “the pure Bodhisattva grounds” and “the final ground of a Buddha,” by way of the wisdom that knows the variety and extent of phenomena, they see phenomena directly and know that those phenomena that appear to other sentient beings are like illusions.


The fifth from among the six topics of the extensive explanation is (5) the benefits of realisation. The verse in the Root Text is:


“The four points introducing the benefits include the complete attainment of Dharmakaya, attainment of bliss that nothing can exceed, attainment of mastery over the power of insight, attainment of mastery over the power to teach.”


The benefit of realising non-conceptual wisdom has four aspects. The first is (i) attainment of the Dharmakaya in a complete form. The description “complete form” means complete abandonment and complete realisation. Complete abandonment means having abandoned all obstructions of the afflictions, such as ignorance, desire, hatred, and so forth. The Sanskrit term for afflictions or conflicting emotions is klesha in Sanskrit, nyön-mongs in Tibetan. Complete abandonment also means having abandoned all obstructions with regard to knowledge. So, the two obstructions are what are abandoned when the Dharmakaya has been attained in complete form. As to complete attainment of the Dharmakaya, there are two aspects of a Buddha’s wisdom. They are the knowledge of the mode of phenomena and the knowledge of the varieties of phenomena. This first topic in the discussion of the benefits of realisation is in the context of the final state of Buddhahood itself.


The second aspect is (ii) attainment of bliss that is superior and surpasses any other kind of happiness. The usual and ordinary happiness that we experience is afflicted, unstable, and changing. The bliss of a Buddha is stable and unchanging. The third aspect of the benefit of having attained realisation is (iii) attainment of mastery over the power of insight. This means having attained the vision of seeing everything without erring. Having mastery of vision, then the fourth aspect of the benefit is (iv) attainment of mastery to teach the good path to others, without making anything up and without teaching anything wrong or wrongly.


The sixth topic is (6) thorough understanding. The Root Text states:


“The introduction to thorough understanding should be known to include the following four motifs: A full understanding regarding the remedy, a full understanding regarding the characteristics, a full understanding regarding distinctive marks, and a full understanding regarding the five effects.”


As is frequently the case in the composition of sacred texts, a brief indication is first given and then an extensive explanation of the topic is offered. The brief indication in the above verse presents four aspects of that which is called “thorough understanding.” The extensive explanation discusses each aspect in detail. The first aspect is understanding thoroughly and fully (i) the antidote to five misconceptions. The verse is:


“Of these, what is understood to be remedy is non-conceptualising original wisdom, since perceiving phenomena, individuals, an alteration as well as dichotomy, denial as well when this is entertained are five distinct forms of perception of non-existents for which it is taught to comprise the remedy.”


First there is the discussion of the way in which that which needs to be abandoned is abandoned. It tells us about the way in which something serves as an antidote to the suffering that we experience, the bad actions in which we engage and that lead to such suffering, our afflictions and obscurations that are the source of our bad actions, and so forth. For example, if we try to identify the root of our afflictions, it comes about in this way: There are various sorts of external appearances that, while confused, we perceive mistakenly, however, phenomena are not established in the way that they appear to us in that state. But due to being confused as to their true nature, we perceive and apperceive things as true existents, while, in fact, they have no own self. Likewise, we perceive and apperceive our internal consciousnesses and experiences as constituting our personal self. We need to give up such concepts. What is it that serves as the antidote to those mistaken conceptions of a self of a person and a self of phenomena? It is non-conceptual wisdom that serves as the antidote to such mistaken conceptions.


There is furthermore the discussion of thorough or complete change that is done in the context of regarding appearances as permanent and thinking that they do not change from one moment to the next. This conception is a big mistake and denotes great confusion as to what is considered “self.” Recognizing that phenomena indeed change and are impermanent is, temporarily speaking, quite helpful in that it leads us in the right direction of realising the way in which things abide. Yet, thinking that phenomena are newly created and eventually cease means being mistaken about their ultimate mode of abiding. The ultimate nature of phenomena is that they lack inherent existence of any sort. From this point of view, it is inaccurate to think that things are created at some point, that they last for a while, and then cease. Thinking in such terms is called “conceiving phenomena as capable of changing,” and this way of thinking also needs to be abandoned.


Generally speaking, there are phenomena that are known as “host phenomena” (dharma in Sanskrit) on the one hand and “Dharmata” (‘the nature of phenomena’) on the other hand. We tend to regard these two as being different. Proceeding toward realisation of the correct view, we come to regard conventionalities as indicating existence and ultimacy as indicating non-existence, i.e., we regard what is conventional as being separate and distinct from what is ultimate. In this manner, we have moved in the direction of realising emptiness. But regarding what is conventional and what is ultimate as separate stands in opposition to the way things appear and the way things really are. This misconception needs to be abandoned, too.


The next mistaken thought that needs to be abandoned is called “deprecation,” in the sense that we take emptiness of inherent existence to mean utter non-existence. We do not understand that emptiness is the suitability for phenomena to appear conventionally and regard emptiness as indicating an utter non-existence of anything whatsoever. Such a conception of utter non-existence is a deprecation, which the translator of the Root Text translated as “denial.” The correct and thorough realisation of non-conceptual wisdom serves as an antidote to such a disapproval or misconception of emptiness meaning utter non-existence.


In this way, we have identified five misconceptions for which non-conceptual wisdom serves as an antidote. The five misconceptions are about (a) a self of phenomena, (b) a self of individuals, (c) an alteration, i.e., misconceiving change that all things constantly undergo, (d) duality, i.e., thinking that conventional and ultimate realities are separate, and (e) denial, i.e., thinking that emptiness means total non-existence.


The second aspect is fully understanding (ii) the characteristics. The Root Verse is:


“Full understanding regarding the characteristics: A lack of the process of thought and correct transcendence, tranquilisation, things in their composition, and predetermination are the five, the exclusion of which is the concrete characteristic.”


Generally speaking, “non-conceptual” just means the absence of thoughts. However, there are a variety of ways in which it can be understood. There are many states that are regarded as non-conceptual, or free from mental activities, or free of any sort of grasping, clarity, and so forth. But not all of them are the wisdom that in this treatise is implied with the term “non-conceptuality.” The text indicates five mistaken conceptions of non-conceptuality.


The first mistaken conception of non-conceptuality is (a) taking the absence of thinking (i.e., the absence of mental application, the absence of taking to mind) as non-conceptuality. Such a coarse kind of conceptuality is one in which a person is involved with various sorts of conventional designations that are set up and agreed upon in the world. They are described in books as “names given to functioning objects in the world and that are suitable to be mixed.” It functions in this manner: It seems fine to put the name given to something together with the apprehended object itself, like pasting them together. The absence of that kind of conceptualisation is not what is meant by “non-conceptual wisdom.”


The second mistaken conception is about (b) transcendence. Through the practice of Shamata (‘tranquillity meditation’), it is possible to develop what is called “the four concentrations,” which are aspects of the form realm from among the three realms (the desire, the form, and the formless realms). In the first of these four concentrations, a practitioner pacifies and transcends a coarse kind of examination, which is called “investigation.” In the second concentration, he/she pacifies and transcends a more subtle kind of examination, called “analysis.” However, that is not what is meant by non-conceptual wisdom.


The third mistaken concept from among the five ways of taking non-conceptual wisdom wrongly is called (c) “thorough pacification.” Various states in which conceptuality has ceased, as if it has been knocked out, are indicated here. For example, we experience little to no conceptuality when we are in deep sleep. However, that state is not non-conceptual wisdom. There is also a meditative state called “meditative absorption of cessation,” in which a meditator enters into a completely mindless state. It seems as though his/her consciousness has stopped completely, so there is no factor of luminous clarity whatsoever. That is not non-conceptual wisdom either, because having non-conceptual wisdom means realisation of the way in which phenomena abide.


The fourth mistaken concept is (d) thinking that objects that lack conceptuality are non-conceptual, e.g., external phenomena such as forms, sounds, smells, tastes, and tangible objects. That is not what is here meant by non-conceptuality. Non-conceptual wisdom has the quality of luminous clarity, whereas material phenomena do not have anything like that.


The fifth mistaken concept is called (e) “a conception of manifest signs.” Let me give an example. When the Indian master Kamalashila travelled to Tibet to debate with Hashang from China, he heard Hashang tell the Tibetan people, “Up to now you have been practicing a gradual path to liberation. The sudden path that I teach is much better. The way in which it is better is like this: Whether there are white clouds in the sky or black clouds, they both block the sun. Similarly, whether you have virtuous thoughts or non-virtuous thoughts, both are obstacles to liberation, and that is why the meditation practice that I teach is better. You should practice it.” What Hashang told Tibetans to do in order to realise non-conceptual wisdom was to abandon thoughts altogether, i.e., to give up good thoughts, to give up bad thoughts, to simply negate the whole thing, and to hold their mind without any thoughts whatsoever. Had this been a recommendation for Shamata meditation, then it would have been fine. But Vipassana (‘insight meditation’) was missing in Hashang’s advice. By practicing Vipassana, it is possible to transcend the underlying thought, “I must hold my mind without having any thoughts whatsoever.” Non-conceptual wisdom is entirely beyond such thoughts.


So, those are the five kinds of ideas about what non-conceptual wisdom might mean. All of these five concepts of non-conceptuality that were shown to be mistaken satisfy the general meaning. But they are not non-conceptuality in the sense of wisdom because wisdom passes far beyond such states. Thorough non-conceptual wisdom is not some sort of cessation or idea that phenomena are merely non-conceptual, rather, it means perceiving, knowing, and realising Dharmata directly.


The third aspect of the sixth topic is fully understanding (iii) the distinctive marks or superior features of non-conceptual wisdom. The Root Verse is:


“Completely understanding its marks involves its being free of conceptualisation as such, the fact that it is not transitional, its not remaining while being perennial, its hallmark of being completely unexcelled, which constitute its five distinctive marks.”


The first distinctive mark of having realised non-conceptual wisdom is (a) being free of conceptuality, which means not having any concepts about samsara as something that is to be abandoned and nirvana as that which is to be achieved. Rather, non-conceptual wisdom means having transcended such dualistic concepts.


The second mark is that it is (b) not trivial, i.e., it is not an understanding of small importance. Rather, the distinctive mark of non-conceptual wisdom is realisation of how all things abide. In that way, a noble practitioner has abandoned everything that needs to be abandoned, has realised everything that needs to be realised, and has developed all beneficial qualities of realisation. That is why it is not trivial.


The third mark of non-conceptual wisdom is (c) not abiding in the extreme of conditioned existence (samsara) or in the extreme of peace (nirvana). It is not a case of being confused and therefore bound in samsara nor is it a case of being frightened of samsara and therefore seeking release in nirvana. Non-conceptual wisdom is not closed in and is not covered by any of those faults, rather, it is the source of great benefit for all sentient beings. From this point of view, it is said that having non-conceptual wisdom means not abiding in either existence or peace.


The fourth distinctive mark is that non-conceptual wisdom is (d) stable. It is not a mental fabrication that fluctuates and changes. Because of having realized it, a noble practitioner cannot fall back into confusion. With reference to the fact that the Dharmakaya is permanent, non-conceptual wisdom is stable and permanent.


The fifth distinctive mark is that it is (e) unsurpassable, i.e., non-conceptual wisdom is not surpassed by anything else and there is nothing higher than it. Having attained thorough non-conceptual wisdom, it is not the case that there is another destination that needs to be reached. It is the final accomplishment, and since it is unsurpassable, there is nothing else that needs to be accomplished.


The fourth aspect of the sixth topic is (iv) full understanding of the five effects of non-conceptual wisdom. The Root Verse is:


“The last, the full understanding of its effects, includes its lasting effect on conceptualisation, its affording a happiness unsurpassable, its affecting elimination of obscurations - afflicted emotions and obscuration of knowledge.


“The original wisdom attained in the wake of this provides the access to every aspect of knowledge, enables achieving attunement with Buddha fields, the thorough maturation of sentient beings, makes viable the revelation, transmission of omniscience itself in its manifold aspects. These five are the special features of the effects.”


The aspects described here are thorough knowledge or the activities of non-conceptual wisdom. In dependence upon having realized Dharmata, a noble paractitioner’s confusion has been overcome and his/her conceptuality has been cast far away and destroyed. Just as when tended correctly and properly, a seed grows into a plant that brings forth fruits, there are five fruits or effects of having realized non-conceptual wisdom.


The first fruit of non-conceptual wisdom is that it is (a) lasting. It is compared to an artwork that a craftsman created by destroying something else. Similarly, non-conceptual wisdom destroys conceptuality. From among the five types of effects, it is an effect that has been made by a living being.


The second effect is (b) unsurpassable happiness. It is unchanging, i.e., beyond change. Ordinary happiness changes and as a result we experience suffering. However, when we have become free of conceptuality by way of thorough non-conceptual wisdom, then our mind does not fluctuate but experiences unsurpassable happiness. Since that is the nature of non-conceptual wisdom, it is said to be a dominant effect from among the five types of effects.


The third effect of non-conceptual wisdom is that it (c) affects elimination of obscurations. This means to say that everything that needed to be abandoned has been indeed abandoned and all obscurations regarding Dharmata have been overcome. The obscurations of knowledge, which cause conflicting emotions, and the obstructions to omniscience have been eliminated. In other words, non-conceptual wisdom enables us to part from afflictive obscurations and obstructions to omniscience. Therefore, this particular effect is referred to as “the separating effect,” in the sense that the twofold obstructions are overcome through the force of non-conceptual wisdom.


The fourth is (d) an effect that accords with the cause. Having achieved non-conceptual wisdom, a noble practitioner sees Dharmata and by way of non-conceptual wisdom abides inseparably with phenomena, while knowing their ultimate nature. It means seeing all objects of knowledge with the two aspects of a Buddha’s wisdom. They are the wisdom of knowing the nature or mode of phenomena and the wisdom of knowing the variety or extent of phenomena. So, from the point of view of seeing the nature of all phenomena and abiding inseparably with them in this way, it is said to be an effect that accords with its cause.


The fifth effect is (e) thorough ripening, in the sense that by way of non-conceptual wisdom, the Buddha field in which a noble practitioner becomes a Buddha is purified and is manifest. Furthermore, the Buddha field naturally ripens sentient beings who have deep faith and devotion. Moreover, it brings sentient beings on the good path of the Buddhadharma in that the Dharma is bestowed upon them. Thus, from this point of view, it is said that non-conceptual wisdom has three qualities. The three qualities of non-conceptual wisdom are the quality of purifying, the quality of ripening, and the quality of completing the welfare of sentient beings.






The photo of Thrangu Rinpoche is courtesy of Teong Hin Ooi from Singapore. The photo of the beautiful chrysanthemum was taken & kindly offered by Lena Fong. The teachings on “Dharma & Dharmata” were presented in Tibetan & were simultaneously translated into English by Jules Levinson. The Root Text was translated in reliance on the instructions of Khenpo Tsultrim Gyamtso Rinpoche by Jim Scott; it was published in Kathmandu, Nepal, & was printed by the International Press Co. Ltd., Singapore, no. 1233, in 1992. Thrangu Rinpoche’s teachings were transcribed from the recordings that Clark Johnson from Colorado had sent by Gaby Hollmann in 1992 & in 2013 the manuscript was revised & edited again so that it is available through the Dharma Download Project of Karma Lekshey Ling Shedra, Nepal. This rendering is for personal studies only; it may not be published anywhere else & it may not be translated into another language. All rights reserved. Copyright, Munich 2013. – May virtue increase!


©Karma Lekshey Ling Institute